How water pollution affects wildlife
How do people pollute water?
The main source of water pollution is the oil. Annually more than 10 million tons of oil products flow into the water due to the collapse of oil carriers, accidents at the offshore oil fields, oil production from the seabed. Oil slick covers from 2% to 4% of the ocean water surface.
Oil floats on the sea currents and is washed to the shore. It is impossible to relax and swim in such resort areas. Animals and plants in the seas and oceans become extinct due to oil pollution.
The largest environmental disaster related to the oil pollution occurred in 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico. As a result of the explosion at the Deepwater Horizon offshore drilling platform, 5 million barrels of oil ended up in the water. 1800 kilometers of coasts were polluted, white sandy beaches turned into black oil fields.
What about plastic?
Millions of tons of garbage are floating in the World ocean. Plastic is 80% of the total pollution.
According to the forecasts of the British Ellen MacArthur Foundation, by 2025, for every 3 kilos of fish in the World ocean we will have had 1 kilo of garbage. By 2050, the mass of waste will have been higher than the weight of all fish on Earth.
Plastic is dangerous because the sunlight breaks it into small particles. Fish and animals mistake them for food. Indigestible waste accumulates in the stomachs and interferes with the work of body systems. As a result, annally plastic waste kills tens of thousands of ocean inhabitants.
Untreated waste water aggravates the damage to the World's oceans caused by oil pollution and household waste. About 10% of pollutants enter the World ocean together with direct discharges from industrial enterprises and ships. Mercury, lead, cadmium and their compounds make the greatest threats to the environment and human health. City sewers and treatment facilities also dump wasted water in the World ocean.
The activities of agricultural enterprises cause great harm to water resources as well. Farmers annually fertilize the soil with 2.5 million tons of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, low-quality phosphorus and other synthetic fertilizers, containing heavy metals. Some of these fertilizers fall into fresh water. That's where animal manure gets in.
In January 2018, an international group of marine biologists and oceanographers released a study where the authors described the presence of the largest "dead zone" in the Indian ocean. This is an area with a critically low oxygen level. The main reason that deprives the ocean of life are the nitrogen fertilizers washed into the water. The depth of the "dead zone" varies from 100 to 400 meters.
Effects of water pollution
The consumer attitude of mankind to the most valuable natural resource leads to global problems. One of the most serious is lack of fresh water.
The figures speak for themselves: over the past 40 years, the amount of drinking water per person has decreased by 60%.
Water pollution leads to the spread of serious diseases of mankind, such as cholera, typhus, as well as the extinction of entire species of animals that do not have access to clean drinking sources.
How can we reduce the pollution of the oceans?
The world community has been concerned about the problem of water pollution for a long time. Since the end of the last century, countries have been working non-stop to create effective measures to preserve the Oceans.
However, everyone is able to contribute to the prevention of ecological catastrophe. You can help nature if you give up using disposable plastic products. They can be replaced by reusable products from more environmentally friendly materials.
refuse disposable plastic products
You can help nature if you give up using disposable plastic products. They can be replaced by reusable products from more environmentally friendly materials.
reduce the amount of chemicals
We advise you to reduce the amount of chemicals used for cleaning, hygienic care, car wash. Chemistry gets into the water supply system and harms the environment.
use natural analogues of chemicals
The farm can use natural analogues of chemicals. For example, a mixture of vinegar or soda, salt and water will help you to clean bathroom. These natural ingredients clean the surface well and do not pollute the water.
Do not flush the medicine down the drain
Decontamination systems can not completely remove the remains of medicines from the water, which adversely affects people drinking this water. Before you throw away any medicine, find out how to do it. Disposal instructions have been developed for every item.
reduce water consumption
Overexpenditure of water has a negative impact on the environment.
Four easy steps to reduce water consumption:
- eliminate water leaks in time;
- install water-saving nozzles on the cranes;
- close the water when washing dishes;
- do not water the lawns too copiously.